OM Disorders

What are the
Orofacial Myofunctional Disorders?

Orofacial Myofunctional Disorders (OMDs) are disorders of the muscles and functions of the face and mouth. OMDs involve behaviors and patterns created by inappropriate muscle function and incorrect habits involving the tongue, lips, jaw and face.

OMDs may affect, directly and/or indirectly,  

  • breastfeeding, 
  • facial skeletal growth and development, 
  • chewing,
  • swallowing,
  • speech,
  • occlusion,
  • temporomandibular joint movement,
  • oral hygiene,
  • stability of orthodontic treatment,
  • facial esthetics, and more.

Of the many possible myofunctional variations, those involving the tongue and lips receive the most attention. A tongue thrust is the most common orofacial myofunctional variation. During the act of swallowing, (deglutition), and/or during rest posture, an incorrect positioning of the tongue may contribute to improper orofacial development and maintenance of the misalignment of the teeth. An orofacial variation that relates to the lips is an open mouth, lips apart resting posture. This is often referred to as lip incompetence and can distract from a pleasing facial appearance.

Common Orofacial Myofunctional Disorders







  • Improper oral habits such as thumb or finger sucking, cheek/nail biting, tooth clenching/grinding.
  • Long term pacifier sucking.
  • Restricted nasal airway due to enlarged tonsils/adenoids and/or allergies.
  • Structural or physiological abnormalities such as a short lingual frenum (tongue-tie) or abnormally large tongue.
  • Neurological or developmental abnormalities.
  • Hereditary predisposition to some of the above factors.


  • Speech distortion; such as frontal lisp and articulation difficulties.
  • Chronic open mouth positioning.
  • Dental abnormalities; such as overjet and open bite.
  • Tongue thrust: when the tongue pushes against or between the teeth during speech or swallowing.
  • Obstructive sleep apnea.
  • Temporomandibular disorders.
  • Headaches.
  • Stomach distress (from swallowing air).
  • Airway obstruction, and other health challenges.


  • Orofacial Myofunctional Therapy is the treatment of OMDs.
  • OM therapy is re-education or re-patterning of the oral facial muscles using specific therapeutic techniques over a period of time to assist in proper functions and growth development plus proper esthetics.
  • The goal is to create, re-establish, or stabilize appropriate normal postural and functional or orofacial muscle patterns .


  • The stomatognathic system is supported by an interdisciplinary team including speech language pathologists, otolaryngologists, orthodontists, dentists and others.
  • Treatment should be completed by a specially trained professional as an Orofacial Myologist.
  • Evgenia Stefanaki, owner and director of All for Speech Center, is the first and only one specializing in orofacial myofunctional therapy in Nicosia.

Is treatment

Many recent scientific studies have shown that treatment for OMDs can be 80-90% effective in correcting swallowing and rest posture function and that these corrections are retained years after completing therapy.

Correcting or improving resting tongue or lip relationships can be instrumental in aiding the development of normal patterns of dental eruption and alignment. Myofunctional therapy for tongue thrusting and lip incompetence may be recommended for a variety of functional or cosmetic reasons.

If the patient already has orthodontic appliances, correcting the myofunctional disorder can help stabilize the orthodontic result by creating a more desirable and healthier oral environment. Usually the therapy programs are designed to retrain patterns of muscle function and to aid in the creation and maintenance of a healthy, adaptive orofacial environment. Therapy can help in the retention of the dental and/or orthodontic treatment, in the enhancement one's appearance and in the maintenance of optimum dental health for a lifetime of benefits.


Is Treatment

There are many possible variations of orofacial myofunctional disorders just as there are many patterns of normal function. Some patterns are more common than others. The effects of these patterns need to be evaluated individually, especially when there are dental, medical, or speech concerns. The decision to treat or not to treat should be made by a professional trained in Orofacial Myology.


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